Grand Bay NWR is one of over 540 National Wildlife Refuges managed as part of the National Wildlife Refuge System. Grand Bay NWR was established in 1992 under the Emergency Wetlands Resources act of 1986 to protect one of the largest expanses of undisturbed pine savanna habitats in the Gulf Coastal Plain region. The refuge is located in Mobile County, Alabama and Jackson, County Mississippi, and when complete will encompass over 32,000 acres. The refuge is part of the Gulf Coast National Wildlife Refuge Complex. The Refuge Complex Manager also administers the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge and Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge. Access to refuge lands (especially interior portions) is limited, but is available mostly on the Mississippi side and by boat.